El verbo need en inglés
El verbo need en inglés, como sabes, significa necesitar en positivo, y no es necesario, don’t need to, en negativo. Vamos a ver hoy cómo expresar la necesidad en inglés.
– need to is used for:
1. habitual actions
2. specific actions
– don’t need to is used for:
1. habitual actions: You don’t need to pay for medical care in National Health Service hospitals.
2. specific actions: You don’t need to water the garden this evening. It’s going to rain tonight.
– needn’t + infinitive is used for:
1. specific actions: You needn’t water the garden this evening. It’s going to rain tonight.
Note from the above examples that need can either act as a modal verb or as an ordinary verb. When it acts as a modal auxiliary verb it is nearly always used in negative sentences, as the above examples illustrate, although it is sometimes also used in questions as a modal verb:
Need you leave straightaway? Can’t you stay longer?
Need I say more? I would like you to stay.
When it is used as an ordinary verb with to before the following infinitive and with an s in the third person singular, it appears in both affirmative and negative sentences and in questions:
She’s almost dehydrated. She needs a drink. She needs to drink something before she has anything to eat. She doesn’t need to stay in bed, but she should have a good rest before she sets off again. ~ Do I need to stay with her? ~ Yes, I think you should
Needn’t Have – You didn’t know something was unnecessary but you did it.
Didn’t Need To – You knew something was unnecessary and you either did it or not.
Both these forms are used to talk about past events, but there is sometimes a difference in use. When we say that someone needn’t have done something, it means that they did it, but it was not necessary. Didn’t need to is also sometimes used in this way:
1. You needn’t have washed the dishes. I would’ve put them in the dishwasher = You didn’t need to wash the dishes. I would’ve put them in the dishwasher.
2. I didn’t need to prepare all that food. They phoned to say they wouldn’t be coming = I needn’t have prepared all that food. They phoned to say they wouldn’t be coming.
In these two sentences you did the action.
But we also use didn’t need to to say that something was not necessary and it was not done:
The sun came out so we didn’t need to take any rainwear on the trip.
We had plenty of petrol in the tank so I didn’t need to fill up.
We didn’t need to wait for long for them. They arrived just after us.
En pasado se pueden dar tres posibilidades:
A) No era necesario, entonces no lo hicieron: They didn’t need to get up early, so they didn’t.
B) Sabía que no era necesario, pero lo hizo igualmente: She didn’t need to wash the T-shirt because it wasn’t dirty OR She needn’t have washed the T-shirt because it wasn’t dirty.
C) No sabía que no era necesario, pero lo descubrí más tarde: I needn’t have bought tomatoes. When I got home, I found that I already had some.
Tened en cuanta que “have to + infinitive” también expresa obligación o necesidad. Need to y have to se utilizan de igual manera, por ejemplo, yo puedo decir “Tengo que ir al dentista” como “I have to go to the dentist” o “I need to go to the dentist”. Si lo que quiero expresar es que”no necesito hacer algo”, es decir, en negativo, puedo decirlo también de dos maneras, negando “need to” o “have to”:
- I don’t need to go to the dentist this year (because I went last year).
- I don’t have to go to the dentist this year (because I went last year).
Para el pasado, también puedo utilizar los dos, como os decía antes, didn’t need to, y have to en pasado negativo sería “didn’t have to”.
Question 1 didn’t need to go.
Question 2 needn’t have taken.
Question 3 needn’t have got.
Question 4 needn’t have bought.
Question 5 didn’t need to attend.
Question 6 needn’t have taken.
Question 7 didn’t need to work.
Question 8 needn’t have said.
1. The previous owners had recently refurnished the flat, so we ________________ (do) any works ourselves.
2. There was no traffic jam on the motorway this morning, so we ________________ (leave) home so early.
3. A friend had given me a ticket to the concert, so I ________________ (buy) one.
4. I ________________ (use) all my cash. I had my credit card with me.
5. Service was included in the bill so you ________________(tip) the waiter. It was a waste of money.
6. They received an inheritance just before signing for their new flat, so in the end they ________________(take) out a mortgage.
7. It’s sweet of you, but you ________________ (buy) me flowers.
8. You ________________ (come) and picked me up. I couldn’t have got a taxi.
9. It was sunny when I left home, so I ________________ (take) my umbrella.
10. It stopped raining two minutes after I left home, so I ________________ (take) the umbrella.
1. didn’t have to 2. needn’t have left 3. didn’t have to 4. didn’t have to
5. needn’t have tipped 6. didn’t have to 7. needn’t have bought
8. needn’t have come 9. didn’t have to 10. needn’t have taken